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Following a national referendum, Bosnia and Herzegovina declared its independence from Yugoslavia in April 1992. The Bosnian Serbs, wishing to remain part of Yugoslavia, attacked the Bosnian Croats and the Bosnian Muslims, overrunning large swathes of Bosnia with the help of the heavily armed Serb dominated Yugoslav People’s Army (JNA).

Armed with heavy artillery and tanks, the Serbs and the JNA surrounded Sarajevo, Bosnia’s capital, enforcing one of the longest and bloodiest sieges in modern history.